Completed Studies


Identifying Challenges and Facilitators in the Management of Behavioral Health Patients in the Emergency Department: A National Study
Using the ENA White Paper on Care of the Psychiatric Patient in the Emergency Department as the basis for targeting gaps in the research literature, this study was developed to address the current care of behavioral health patients in emergency departments. The outcomes of this study will serve to further identify methods to reduce barriers to and increase facilitators of appropriate and safe care for this patient population. The findings from this study have been submitted for publication to the Journal of Emergency Nursing and are expected to be published in 2014.

Nothing Changes, Nobody Cares: Understanding the Experience of Emergency Nurses Physically or Verbally Assaulted While Providing Care
Completed in 2013, the purpose of this qualitative study was to better understand the experience of emergency nurses who have been physically or verbally assaulted while providing patient care in US emergency departments. The findings are consistent with the extant literature but with an added contribution of clearly identifying an underlying cultural acceptance of violence in the emergency department, as well as a distinct lack of cue recognition, in this sample of emergency nurses



Identifying the Educational Needs of Emergency Nurses in Rural and Critical Access Hospitals
This qualitative study was conducted to determine educational needs and identify potentially effective educational mo¬dalities for emergency nurses working in rural and critical access hospitals. Thirty-three emergency nurses practicing in rural or critical access hospitals were recruited for a focus group discussion of educational needs, barriers, and facilitators. Participants identified a need for further education in the care of critically ill patients, those who have undergone bariatric surgery, geriatric patients, those with traumatic injury, and those with mental health issues. Themes included educational isolation and limited availability of resources.


Staffing Guidelines Revision Project
Revised in 2013, the ENA Staffing Guidelines is a tool for emergency department managers and administrators to use in identifying and supporting appropriate number of patient care full-time equivalents (FTEs) for the emergency department. The online module includes the context and development of the Staffing Guidelines tool as well as the calculation tool itself.



Non-Violence-Related Workplace Injuries Among Emergency Nurses in the United States: Implications for Improving Safe Practice, Safe Care
The Emergency Department Workplace Injury Prevention Work Team conducted a study to better understand non-violence-related workplace injuries among emergency nurses (N=2,294). A logistic regression model found three factors that were related to the occurrence of a non-violence-related workplace injury: (1) hospitals having safe patient handling policies and programs, (2) access to decontamination and post-exposure treatment, and (3) emergency nurses' perception of staffing in their emergency department. The model may help establish a culture of ED workplace safety through the integration of safety policies and programs, access to safety equipment and controls, and optimal staffing levels.



Barriers and Perceived Needs for Understanding and Using Research Among Emergency Nurses
In 2007, ENA members were surveyed to identify their research activities and needs regarding active research participation. The data obtained from this survey has served to aid the growth and development of the IENR in order to meet the needs of ENA members.


Competencies for Clinical Nurse Specialists in Emergency Care
In 2008, a work team was convened to determine competencies for clinical nurse specialists practicing in emergency care which they accomplished through a literature review to explore issues affecting the validation of competencies for emergency clinical nurse specialists. The competencies were reviewed by an expert panel through two rounds of review. ENA then hosted a stakeholder meeting in 2010 to discuss and gain consensus on the competencies for clinical nurse specialists in emergency care. The resulting competencies were then validated in a study with a national sample of clinical nurse specialists practicing in emergency care.



Alcohol Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment Conducted by Emergency Nurses: An Impact Evaluation
In a quasi-experimental study, control and intervention group outcomes were compared following implementation of alcohol screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) by emergency nurses. The primary hypothesis was: Trauma patients who participate in nurse-delivered ED SBIRT will have greater reductions in alcohol consumption and fewer alcohol-related incidents than those who do not. Results demonstrated that SBIRT can impact alcohol consumption and potentially reduce injuries and ED visits when successfully implemented by staff nurses in the emergency department; however, further research is needed to improve follow-up methods in this hard to reach, mobile patient population.



Barriers to Emergency Departments' Adherence to Four Medication Safety-Related Joint Commission National Patient Safety Goals (LUNAR III)
LUNAR is the acronym for Learning and Using New Approaches to Research, which was a program at ENA involving studies designed to help nurses learn about research while being part of a national study. The LUNAR III study focused on The Joint Commission’s 2006 National Patient Safety Goals (NPSGs) that are related to medication safety (then known as Goals 1, 2, 3, and 8).


Violence Against Nurses in U.S. Emergency Departments
The Violence in the Workplace Work Team was convened in 2006 to conduct a study on violence against emergency nurses. A total of 3,465 emergency nurses who were ENA members participated in an anonymous, online survey. The objective of this study was to investigate emergency nurses' experiences and perceptions of violence from patients and visitors in US emergency departments (EDs). Precipitating factors to violent incidents identified by respondents were consistent with the research literature; however, there is considerable potential to mitigate these factors.



Alcohol Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral in the Emergency Department: An Implementation Study
The purpose of this study was to examine ED nurse training needs and identify both barriers to, and enablers of, SBIRT implementation in the emergency department. The SBIRT process can be conducted successfully by emergency nurses. However, substantial operational barriers to widespread routine implementation exist. These barriers need to be addressed before emergency nurses incorporate SBIRT as routine part of ED care.


Competencies for Nurse Practitioners in Emergency Care – Delphi Study
A national Delphi study was conducted by the ENA Nurse Practitioner Validation Work Team to verify and gain consensus on competencies for nurse practitioners (NPs) in emergency care (September 2007 – May 2008). The final competency document is being disseminated through the ENA Web site and ENA publications.